Sourced from Water Finance & Management
Across the nation, countless cities with antiquated sewer and stormwater systems are under orders from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce stormwater runoff to decrease the amount of pollution entering local waterways. When Washington, D.C., faced this problem, city officials decided to experiment with green infrastructure rather than investing in expensive new pumps and pipes. Since green infrastructure had never been implemented on such a large scale, however, the city faced a huge challenge when it came to financing the project.
For the city, the solution was to launch the country’s first Environmental Impact Bond, or EIB. Considered a “pay for success” strategy, an EIB allows cities to share both the risks and the rewards of solving problems through innovative strategies with investors. They make it possible for governments, investors and other participants to focus on overall outcomes rather than specific activities, and they are proving successful.
What are EIBs, how do they work and how exactly are they affecting green infrastructure? Let’s take a closer look.
EIBs and How They Work
EIBs are instruments for financing large projects that pay returns based on outcomes. Like Green Bonds, they are commonly used to raise funding for environmentally sustainable projects, such as green infrastructure. Unlike Green Bonds, however, the financial return of the investment is tied directly to the success of the project. In other words, investors can only collect a return on their investment if the project proves to be successful. In the case of financing green infrastructure projects using an EIB, investors see a financial return when a demonstrable difference to the environment is achieved.
The current generation of investors cares about environmental and social returns as much as it cares about financial gain. Known as “impact investors,” these individuals and organizations are seeking environmental, social and financial returns when making investments. When a municipality decides to fund a green infrastructure project using EIBs, it seeks investors who want to help pay for environmental capital projects.
Once bonds have been issued, the issuer uses the obtained funds to pay for their planned green infrastructure solutions. The principal amount of the bonds and interest must be remitted on scheduled payment dates. Following an evaluation period, the issuer pays the investors an outcome profit when there is demonstrable proof that the project has performed better than expected. If it underperforms, however, the investor must pay the municipality a “risk-sharing” payment. This usually means that the investor receives little or no interest.
What Is Green Infrastructure?
Green infrastructure, also sometimes referred to as GI, is an innovative approach to managing stormwater runoff. It utilizes natural processes, such as evapotranspiration and infiltration, to slow down stormwater to prevent it from overwhelming municipal sewer systems and polluting waterways.
Green infrastructure also harnesses the power of these natural processes to clean and sometimes reuse stormwater. There are several types of green infrastructure, but the overall goal is to replicate natural environments and make it possible to deal with rainwater and snowmelt runoff as naturally as possible.
Green infrastructure includes things like permeable pavements, bioretention and roof-top collection processes. Porous asphalt, pervious concrete, rain gardens, bioswales and tree boxes can all be used in green infrastructure processes as a means of allowing water to be absorbed naturally into the ground. Green roofs, rain barrels and cisterns serve as options for collecting or reusing rainwater and reducing runoff. Man-made wetlands are also common solutions for dealing with stormwater in urban and suburban areas.